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Specific Evidence-Based Treatment Programs

Please click on the links below to learn about various specific, evidence-based treatment programs for child and adolescent mental health symptoms and disorders.

Alternatively, please click here to view a more inclusive list of both specific EBT programs, as well as broad, theoretically-based interventions organized by disorder and according to evidence-based criteria.

Please note that the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology does not endorse any specific EBT program.  Instead, the treatments described below are offered as examples of EBT programs which are based on scientific principles and have demonstrated some level of efficacy for a given mental health problem or disorder.
 

Social Phobia

Depression

Disruptive Behavior Problems

Substance Abuse

Anorexia Nervosa

Bipolar Disorder

Autism

 

Social Phobia

The Coping Cat

The Coping Cat program (for children aged 6-13) and its associated adolescent program, the C.A.T. Project, are cognitive-behavioral treatments that address unwanted/distressing anxiety in youth. Both programs have (a) a therapist manual and (b) a workbook to be followed by the child/adolescent. Participant youth are taught about the cognitive, behavioral, and affective features of anxiety, develop and learn a plan to cope with their anxiety (the "FEAR plan"), and are then given opportunities to practice their new skills in several anxiety-provoking situations. Participant youth learn their own cues for when they are becoming anxious, as well as how to use these cues to initiate the implementation of coping skills.

To purchase training materials (e.g., treatment manuals, DVDs, and computer-based training programs) please contact Workbook Publishing. A computer-assisted version of the Coping Cat, entitled Camp Cope-A-Lot, is also available. The interested reader can find references and resources on the publisher's web page, or by contacting the program's developer, Dr. Philip C. Kendall.

Social Effectiveness Training for Children (SET-C)

Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children and Adolescents (SET-C) is a multi-component treatment program that helps children and adolescents decrease their social anxiety, increase their interpersonal skills, and expand their range of enjoyable social activities. SET-C combines group social skills training, structured peer generalization sessions, and individualized behavioral exposure treatment to help children eliminate their social anxiety. The program is appropriate for children ages 7-17 and has been demonstrated to produce outcomes significantly superior to active non-specific psychosocial treatment, pill placebo, and pharmacological treatment. Evidence suggests that SET-C treatment gains are maintained at five year follow-up.

SET-C can be purchased from Multi-Health Systems, Inc. Click here for ordering information.

 

Depression

Penn Prevention Program (PPP)

The Penn Resiliency Program (PRP), which is also known as the Penn Prevention Program (PPP), is a curriculum designed to promote resilience and prevent symptoms of depression in youth ages 10-14. PRP is based on cognitive-behavioral therapy and problem-solving interventions. The cognitive component teaches participants to identify their self-talk and to think more flexibly and accurately about the problems they encounter. The problem-solving component teaches several skills (e.g., assertiveness, relaxation, creative brainstorming, decision making) that can help youth cope with day-to-day stressors they encounter. PRP is delivered in a small group format by teachers, counselors, and clinicians. PRP has been evaluated in more than 17 controlled trials with almost 2,500 children from a variety of geographic, socio-economic, and cultural backgrounds.

For more information, please either follow the links below or contact Drs. Jane Gillham and Karen Reivich, Co-Directors of the Penn Resiliency Project, at info@pennproject.org or by phone at (215) 573-4128.

Links:

Penn Resiliency Project website. Visit Website
Empirical evaluations of PRP. Visit Website
Description of the PRP lessons. Download PDF
Requests for PRP curriculum. Visit Website
Information about PRP training. Visit website

Adolescents Coping with Depression (CWD-A)

Coping with Depression for Adolescents (CWD-A) is a group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) program for depressed adolescents ages 12 to 18. The intervention consists of sixteen 2-hour sessions typically conducted over an 8-week period with mixed gender groups of 4 to 10 youths. CWD-A focuses on self-monitoring of one's mood, increasing pleasant activities, decreasing anxiety, and challenging unrealistic thinking that fosters depression. It also addresses interpersonal factors such as social skills, improving communications, and conflict resolution. A parallel course for parents addresses solutions to conflict with their adolescents.

Materials for both youth and parent interventions include therapist manuals and participant workbooks. All CWD-A materials can be downloaded for free at this website.

IPT for Depressed Adolescents (IPT-A)

Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depressed Adolescents (IPT-A) is a brief, 12-16 session psychosocial intervention. The main goals of IPT-A are to decrease a client's depressive symptoms and improve social functioning within the context of his/her significant relationships. This is accomplished through a focus on identifying interpersonal competencies and teaching skills in communication and problem-solving. Importantly, IPT-A has been developed to address developmental issues most common to adolescents such as separation from parents, exploration of authority in relation to parents, development of dyadic interpersonal relationships with members of the opposite sex, initial experience with death of a relative or friend, and peer pressures. Although IPT-A is an individual treatment, some degree of involvement on the part of the parent or guardian is needed to promote the well being of the adolescent and to facilitate the success of the treatment.

IPT-A can be purchased from Guilford Press. Click here for ordering information. Please also refer to this recent article for additional information.

 

Disruptive Behavior Problems

Rational-Emotive Mental Health Program (REMH)

Rational Emotive Mental Health program (REMH) is a school-based intervention for high-risk 11th and 12th graders with disruptive behavior problems. Based on cognitive-behavioral principles, students involved in this intervention participate in daily, 45-minute small group sessions for 12 consecutive weeks. Group sessions instruct youths to participate in such activities as cognitive restructuring through adaptive rational appraisal, in vivo role playing, group-directed discussion, and therapy "homework" assignments. REMH was adapted from Rational Emotive Education (REE) methods, which was pioneered and developed by Dr. Bill Knaus.

Please refer to this article for more information about REMH.

Click here for a free copy of the REE manual. For a more thorough description of REE and supporting research, please refer to this article.

Helping the Noncompliant Child

Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC) is a parent skills-training program aimed at teaching parents how to obtain compliance in their children to reduce conduct problems and prevent subsequent juvenile delinquency and other problem behaviors. The program, which is designed for parents and their 3- to 8-year-old children, is based on theory and evidence that noncompliance in children is a keystone behavior for the development of conduct problems, and that faulty parent-child interactions play a significant part in the development and maintenance of these problems. There are two phases to the program. First, parents learn to increase the frequency and range of social attention to the child (attends, rewards) while actively ignoring minor inappropriate behaviors (Differential Attention). The major goal of this phase is to break out of the coercive cycle by establishing a positive, mutually reinforcing relationship between the parent and child. In Compliance Training (Phase II), parents are taught to use the Clear Instructions Sequence to provide direct, concise instructions to the child; to allow the child sufficient time to comply; and to provide appropriate consequences for compliance (i.e., positive attention) or noncompliance (i.e., time out).

The parent(s) and child attend sessions in a playroom setting, and parenting skills are taught using active teaching methods, such as extensive demonstration, role plays, and direct practice with the child in the training setting and at home. Parents meet behavioral criteria for each skill before advancing to the next, so the duration of the program is individualized (average number of sessions is 8-10, with a range of 5-14).

The Helping the Noncompliant Child treatment manual is available from Guilford Press at the following link:

McMahon, R. J., & Forehand R. (2003). Helping the noncompliant child: Family-based treatment for oppositional behavior (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

Triple P (Positive Parenting Program)

The Triple P (or Positive Parenting Program) is a multi-level system of parenting and family support interventions. Developed by Matthew Sanders and colleagues at the University of Queensland, Triple P is applicable to the prevention and treatment of children's social, emotional, behavioral, and health problems, as well as to the prevention of child maltreatment. Although the core programming focuses on parents of children ages 1 to 12 years, Triple P also extends to parents of teenagers. Triple P draws on empirical literatures related to child development, applied behavior analysis, social learning, cognitive functioning, and family dynamics. The multiple levels of Triple P are tiered in increasing intensity, delivered through varying formats (e.g., individual, small group, large group, self-directed), and designed for flexibility and tailoring to family needs. Triple P is active in 18 countries including the U.S. and Canada. To date, there have been over 90 published studies on Triple P, including many randomized trials (efficacy, effectiveness, and population).

Triple P America is the entity responsible for Triple P professional training and dissemination in the U.S.

Incredible Years Training Series

The Incredible Years (IY) Training Series is a set of three comprehensive, multifaceted, and developmentally-based curricula for parents, teachers, and children aimed at treating disruptive behavior problems in youths. Overall, IY is designed to promote emotional, social, and problem-solving competence, as well as to prevent, reduce, and treat aggression and emotional problems in children.

  • The parenting programs span the age range of 6 weeks to 12 years in 4 BASIC curricula: 1) Baby Program (8-9 sessions); 2) Toddler Program (12 sessions); 3) Preschool or Early Childhood Program (18-20 sessions); and 4) School-Age Program or Preadolescent Program (12-16 sessions). In addition, the ADVANCE parent program (9 sessions) focuses on more interpersonal skills, anger and depression management, and problem-solving and follows the BASIC program for high risk populations and families with diagnosed children.

  • The teacher training program is for teachers of children ages 3-8 years and focuses on classroom management training and topics such as proactive teaching, building relationships with students, collaborating with parents, effective praise and incentives, positive discipline, teaching children social skills, emotional regulation, and problem solving. The 6 daylong workshops are offered every 2-4 weeks throughout the school year and are conducted with 12-16 teachers.

  • The child dinosaur social, emotional, and problem-solving program curricula is for teachers to use to teach children emotional literacy, anger management, problem-solving, social skills, and how to make friends. There is a 2-hour weekly treatment model to be offered in 20 sessions in conjunction with the parent program for children with conduct problems or ADHD. There is also a prevention model to be offered in 60 lesson plans by teachers with separate curricula for preschool, kindergarten and grades 1 and 2.

See www.incredibleyears.com for more information about research studies with these age groups and programs.

Reaching Educators, Children, and Parents (RECAP)

The RECAP (Reaching Educators, Children, and Parents) program is a school-based, cognitive-behavioral and social skills training program for elementary school children with co-occurring externalizing (acting out, conduct), as well as internalizing (anxious, depressive) problems. RECAP focuses on the development of socio-emotional and problem-solving skills and positive behavior management. It heavily emphasizes teacher training and ongoing consultative support for the classroom teacher, with multiple treatment components, including: (a) teachers' development and implementation of a positive classroom behavior management plan; (b) classroom social and emotional skills lessons, and support for students' use of these skills in the classroom; (c) small student group meetings, led by a clinician, focusing on individualized training and practice in the RECAP skills; and (d) RECAP parenting skills groups conducted at the schools.

For additional information about RECAP, as well as evidence for the efficacy of this program at improving children's internalizing and externalizing problems, please follow the links to the two articles below.

A teacher-consultation approach to social skills training for pre-kindergarten children: Treatment model and short-term outcome effects

Efficacy of the RECAP intervention program for children with concurrent internalizing and externalizing problems

First Step to Success Program

The First Step to Success program was developed specifically for kindergartners who either display an antisocial behavior pattern or show clear signs of developing one. First Step is a joint home and school-based intervention which enhances early school experiences and assists at-risk children in getting off to the best possible start in their school careers by teaching them: (1) to get along with teachers and peers; and (2) to engage in schoolwork in an appropriate manner. The program improves at-risk children's social adjustment and academic performance by enlisting the coordinated support and participation of the three social agents who are most important in their lives: parents, teachers, and peers. Parents are enlisted as partners with teachers and school staff in meeting the child's needs, rather than being blamed for failing to socialize the child to meet behavioral expectations in school. In addition, a school-based consultant-who may be a school counselor, school psychologist, resource teacher, behavioral specialist, vice principal, or other school professional-bridges home and school activities and coordinates the program. Participation in First Step also develops interactive skills among target children, peers, parents, and teachers that contribute to positive relationships and the development of friendships.

For ordering information please contact Cambium Learning/Sopris West Educational Services.

Self-administered Treatment, plus Signal Seat

Self-administered Treatment, plus Signal Seat is designed to improve misbehavior in children (ages 2-7) by using behavioral management techniques. This is accomplished by supplementing traditional "time-out" punishment with the Signal Seat, a time-out chair which sounds an alarm whenever the child leaves the chair without permission. The Signal Seat functions simultaneously to increase the behavioral adherence of the child to his/her punishment while obviating the need for continual parental monitoring. Thus, the inconvenience of time-out is minimized and parental consistency is encouraged.

Please refer to this article for additional information.

 

Substance Abuse

Multidimensional Family Therapy

Developed and tested in 10 randomized controlled trials over the past 25 years, Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT) is a family-based, comprehensive treatment system for adolescent drug abuse and antisocial behavior. MDFT is theory driven, combining aspects of several theoretical frameworks (i.e., family systems theory, developmental psychology, and the risk and protective model of adolescent substance abuse). It incorporates key elements of effective adolescent drug treatment, including comprehensive assessment, an integrated treatment approach, family involvement, developmentally appropriate interventions, specialized engagement and retention protocols, attention to qualifications of staff and their ongoing training, gender and cultural competence. MDFT focuses on a broad range of outcomes, including substance use, antisocial behavior, family functioning, peer relations, school attendance and performance and juvenile justice system involvement.

A tailored yet flexible treatment delivery system, and depending on the needs of the youth and family, MDFT is provided from one to three times per week over the course of 3-6 months, both in the home and in the clinic. Therapists meet alone with the adolescent, alone with the parent(s), or conjointly with the adolescent and parent(s), depending on the treatment domain and specific problem being addressed. Additionally, therapists work simultaneously in four interdependent treatment domains--the adolescent, parent, family, and extra-familial--each of which are addressed in 3 Stages: Stage 1: Building a Foundation for Change; Stage 2: Facilitating Individual and Family Change; and Stage 3: Solidify Changes and Launch. MDFT has been widely implemented in a variety of settings in the U.S., tested in a multi-national country RCT in Europe, and is currently being implemented at public community clinics in The Netherlands, France, Germany, Belgium and Switzerland.

Resource:

Liddle, H. A. (2010). Treating adolescent substance abuse using Multidimensional Family Therapy. In J. Weisz & A. Kazdin (Eds.) (Second Edition). Evidence-based psychotherapies for children and adolescents (pp. 416-432). New York: Guilford Press.

Functional Family Therapy

Functional Family Therapy (FFT) is a well-established and widely disseminated intervention for youth with conduct/delinquent behaviors and substance abuse. FFT is an integrative and short-term approach that combines systemic (relational) and cognitive-behavioral interventions in a phase-based strategic manner. FFT helps youth and their families develop new relational patterns (behavioral, cognitive, and emotional) which are associated with reduced adolescent substance use and conduct problems, and improved family functioning. FFT was specifically designed for the traditionally difficult to treat population of youth between the ages of 12 and 18. Over the past three decades numerous studies and replications have demonstrated the effectiveness of FFT; these effects have been replicated across sites, settings, different ethnic cultural groups, and service providers with diverse backgrounds and training. These effects also have been shown to be sustainable for years after treatment, and even into adulthood. Moreover, FFT has been shown to prevent problem behaviors for younger siblings of FFT treated youth.

Information about training in FFT can be obtained from Functional Family Therapy, Inc.

Brief Strategic Family Therapy

Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) is designed to address three primary goals: (1) prevent, reduce, and/or treat adolescent behavior problems such as drug use, conduct problems, delinquency, sexually risky behavior, aggressive/violent behavior, and association with antisocial peers; (2) improve prosocial behaviors such as school attendance and performance; and (3) improve family functioning, including effective parental leadership and management, positive parenting, and parental involvement with the child and his or her peers and school. BSFT is typically delivered in 12-16 family sessions, depending on the severity of the communication and management problems within the family. Sessions are conducted at locations that are convenient to the family, including the family's home in some cases. Although Hispanic families have been the principal recipients of BSFT, African American and Caucasian families have also participated in the intervention.

Please refer to this article to learn more about the history and application of the program.

Click here for a free copy of the BSFT manual.

Brief Strategic Family Therapy™ Institute

Center for Family Studies
University of Miami
1425 NW 10th Avenue
Miami, Florida 33136
Phone (305) 243-7585
Fax (305) 243-2320
BSFT@med.miami.edu

Strength Oriented Family Therapy (SOFT)

Strengths Oriented Family Therapy (SOFT) is an outpatient therapy program designed to treat adolescents who abuse substances. The major activities in this treatment are motivational interviewing-based assessment feedback, completion of a strengths and resources assessment, solution-focused and task-oriented sessions, family-based relapse prevention planning, and family communication skills training. An overview of the initial motivational interviewing-based assessment feedback procedures and empirical findings on their success are described in Smith and Hall (2007) and Smith et al. (2009), respectively. Brief and full descriptions of the entire SOFT model are also available (Hall et al., 2008; Smith & Hall, 2008).

For additional information regarding the model, or for information on training, you may contact Dr. Doug Smith or Dr. James Hall.

Resources

Smith, D. C., Hall, J. A., Jang, M., & Arndt, S. (2009). Therapist adherence to a Motivational-Interviewing intervention improves treatment entry for substance misusing adolescents with low problem perception. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 70, 101-105.

Hall, J. A., Smith, D. C., & Williams, J. K. (2008). Strengths Oriented Family Therapy (SOFT): A manual-guided treatment for substance-involved teens and their families. In C. W. Lecroy (Ed.), Handbook of Evidence-Based Treatment Manuals for Children and Adolescents (2nd ed. pp. 491-545). New York: Oxford University Press.

Smith, D. C., & Hall, J. A. (2008). Strengths Oriented Family Therapy for Adolescents with Substance Abuse Problems. Social Work, 53, 185-188.

Smith, D.C., & Hall, J.A. (2007). Strengths Oriented Referral for Teenagers (SORT): Giving Balanced Feedback to Teens and Families. Health and Social Work, 32, 69-72.

Minnesota Model 12 Step

The Minnesota Model 12 Step program combines scientifically-based behavioral strategies and principles of the 12-step philosophy from Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) to treat adolescent substance addiction. (Variants of this approach are used to treat other addictions, such as pathological gambling and sexual compulsion). The primary goal is lifetime abstinence from alcohol and other drugs, as well as improved quality of life and changes in basic thinking and coping with stress. These changes are often referred to as a spiritual experience. Program components typically include a detailed assessment of the client, group and individual therapy, family education, and aftercare planning. A multidisciplinary team of professionals (e.g., counselors, psychologists, psychiatrists, and nurses) typically provide the treatment.

For more information about this program, please refer to the National Institute on Drug Abuse's website.

Additional Resources

Spicer, J. (1993). The Minnesota Model: The evolution of the multidisciplinary approach to addiction recovery. Hazelden: Center City, MN.

 

Anorexia Nervosa

Psychoanalytic Therapy for AN

Psychoanalytic Therapy for Anorexia Nervosa is based on a modern formulation of psychoanalysis called "self psychology." According to the self psychological viewpoint, eating disorders arise from adolescents' inability to rely on other human beings to satisfy their emotional needs. Instead, these adolescents turn to food--either to its consumption or avoidance-- for fulfillment of these needs. In psychoanalytic therapy, adolescents learn to give up their pathological preference for food in favor of relying on human beings for support. There is a randomized empirical study showing the efficacy of this approach in eliminating symptoms of anorexia nervosa and enhancing the intra-psychic development of a central personality domain.

For more information, please refer to the following articles:

Bachar, E., Latzer, Y., Kreitler, S., & Berry, E. M. (1999). Empirical comparison of two psychological therapies: Self psychology and cognitive orientation in the treatment of anorexia and bulimia. Journal of Psychotherapy Practice & Research, 8(2), 115-128.

Bachar, E. (1998). The contributions of self psychology to the treatment of anorexia and bulimia. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 52(2), 147-165.

Cash's Body Image Therapy, plus Virtual Reality

Cash's Body Image Therapy, plus Virtual Reality is a cognitive-behavioral approach adapted and extended from a well-known treatment designed by Cash (1997). In this intervention, traditional Body Image Therapy--which is composed of psychoeducation, exposure, safety behavior prevention, cognitive restructuring, and body self-esteem building--is combined with a Virtual Reality (VR) component. Virtual reality simulations are used as repeated exposures to represent the patient's body in various significant contexts (e.g., in the kitchen or in front of a mirror). The combination of cognitive-behavioral treatment and VR strengthens the results of standard BI intervention, and treatment gains often continue beyond a year of follow-up. Importantly, these improvements were not only specific to the treatment target (i.e., BI disturbances), but also extended to other symptoms of eating disorders and general psychopathology.

Please click here to download the treatment manual.

 

Bipolar Disorder

Family-Focused Treatment for Adolescents

Family-Focused Treatment for Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder (FFT-A) is a 21-session, 9 month outpatient intervention conducted shortly after the onset of a mood episode in an adolescent or preadolescent with bipolar spectrum disorder (bipolar I, II, or NOS). The treatment is conducted with the bipolar youth, one or more parents, and siblings. It consists of four phases: (1) assessment of the child and family; (2) psychoeducation about coping with mood disorders and how to prevent the escalation into mania, or the descent into depression; (3) communication enhancement skills training; and (4) problem-solving skills training. The treatment addresses how to cope with a cyclic mood disorder, both at the individual and family level. It attempts to reduce high levels of expressed emotion or aversive family communication patterns.

In several randomized trials with adults, FFT was shown to augment medication management in hastening time to recovery from mood episodes and delaying recurrences, as well as improving family functioning and medication adherence. In bipolar I and II adolescents, FFT-A and pharmacotherapy were shown to speed time to recover from depression, increase amount of time well, and decrease amount of time with acute symptoms relative to pharmacotherapy and brief psychoeducation. FFT-A is typically given alongside of standard pharmacotherapy for pediatric-onset bipolar disorder.

The manuals for FFT can be found on the following Guilford Publications websites:

Bipolar Disorder: A Family-Focused Treatment Approach, 2nd Ed.

The Bipolar Disorder Survival Guide

The Bipolar Teen: What You Can Do to Help Your Child and Your Family

Key References

Miklowitz, D. J., Axelson, D. A., Birmaher, B., George, E. L., Taylor, D. O., Schneck, C. D., Beresford, C. A., Dickinson, L. M., Craighead, W. E., & Brent, D. A. (2008). Family-focused treatment for adolescents with bipolar disorder: Results of a 2-year randomized trial. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65 (9), 1053-1061.

Miklowitz, D. J. (2008). Adjunctive psychotherapy for bipolar disorder: State of the evidence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165 (11), 1408-1419.

Miklowitz, D. J. & Chang, K. D. (2008). Prevention of bipolar disorder in at-risk children: Theoretical assumptions and empirical foundations. Development and Psychopathology, 20(3), 881-897.

Multi-Family Psychoeducation

Psychoeducational Psychotherapy (PEP) for pediatric bipolar disorder can be delivered in a multi-family (MF-PEP) or individual-family (IF-PEP) format. PEP utilizes a biopsychosocial approach to conceptualize childhood mood disorders--depressive and bipolar spectrum disorders. Intervention includes psychoeducation, support, and skill-building based on cognitive-behavioral and family systems principles. As of 2010, a therapist manual will be available via Guilford Press. Additionally, an MF-PEP group therapist manual, MF-PEP parent and child workbooks, and IF-PEP parent and child workbooks will be available on-line.

Dialectical Behavior Therapy (adolescents)

Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT; Linehan, 1993) is a treatment approach initially developed for adults with borderline personality disorder and subsequently adapted for suicidal adolescents by Miller and colleagues (2007). DBT is a skills-based approach that targets emotional dysregulation, suicidal behavior, interpersonal deficits, and treatment resistance. DBT was modified for adolescents with bipolar disorder by incorporating illness-specific modifications for this population (Goldstein et al., 2007). The intervention consists of two modalities: Family Skills Training (conducted with individual family units) and Individual DBT Therapy with the adolescent. Results from two open trials support high treatment satisfaction, excellent treatment adherence, and significant improvement in emotional dysregulation, suicidality, and depressive symptoms with DBT treatment.

For further information, please refer to the following article:

Goldstein, T.R., Axelson, D.A., Birmaher, B., & Brent, D.A. (2007). Dialectical behavior therapy for adolescents with bipolar disorder: A one-year open trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(7), 820-830.

 

Autism

Lovaas' Method

The Lovaas Model of Applied Behavior Analysis is a behavioral treatment program for children with autism. The Lovaas Model utilizes a variety of evidence-based practices, including reinforcing appropriate behaviors, task analysis, shaping and chaining, discrete trial teaching, incidental teaching, functional behavior assessment, and peer integration. The program is both intensive and comprehensive. Research indicates up to 40 hours of therapy per week is beneficial. Skills are taught across all developmental domains-- from communication, speech and language, to academics, self-help, and play. Parent training and involvement is critical to the program's success. The initial years of treatment are often devoted to one-on-one instruction in the home (i.e., a young child's primary learning environment) with generalization of skills throughout the day by parents. As children demonstrate school readiness skills, treatment involves the integration of the child into the school environment.

The Lovaas Model treatment manual and other resources are available for purchase or download at the Lovaas Institute website.

Rogers, S. & Vismara, L. (2008). Evidence-based comprehensive treatments for early autism. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 37, 8-38.

 

 
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